Industrial Hygiene

An industrial hygiene laboratory analyzes samples taken in the workplace environment. Since results of these analyses are used to determine the magnitude or presence of a problem in the workplace environment, it is vital that the laboratory analyzing the samples be proficient in producing high quality data on which important health decisions will be based.  Our accreditation from AIHA-LAP, LLC is a mark of that capability.  The AIHA-LAP, LLC accreditation shows that the laboratory has met defined standards for performance based on examination of a variety of criteria.  When an IH laboratory is accredited by AIHA-LAP, LLC, it becomes part of a select group that have proven a high level of professional performance can be achieved and maintained.

Analytics has over 800 methods currently in service.  It has always been our policy to develop new routine methods at no charge, assuming adequate demand.  In addition, we can develop very specific/one of a kind methods for a standard fee plus expenses. See our directory for a list of industrial hygiene services as well as our full directory below.

 

 

Shipping, Billing, and Rush Multipliers

Analytics will cover the cost of STANDARD OVERNIGHT FedEx return shipment to the laboratory of six (6) or more samples shipped within the United States. All other overnight delivery services charged on Analytics’ accounts will be billed at the courier’s published rate.

Clients may request monthly billing or individual invoices by sample group. Pricing is subject to change based on the current state of the economy. Billing by sample group is assumed unless otherwise requested. Billing terms are payable net 30. Acceptable forms of payment include check, money order, wire transfer, VisaTM, MasterCardTM, DiscoverTM or American ExpressTM.

Samples requiring rush or priority turnaround time must be scheduled prior to sample submission. The following charges will apply:

2 Day Turnaround Time 1.75 x price

1 Day Turnaround Time 2.00 x price

Same Day Turnaround Time 3.00 x price

Weekend Analysis 3.00 x price + $300

Holiday Analysis 3.00 x price + $300

Discount Program/Multiple Analytes of Single Media

All prices listed in our Directory of Services are our list/non-discounted prices. Client discounts may be available and are based on your annual volume of business. Please contact our Sales personnel to discuss volume related discounting.

Analysis of multiple compatible analytes captured on one medium is available at a discounted fee. The higher priced analyte is billed at the published fee with additional analytes discounted as follows:

Organic Vapors 50% of the published fee

Inorganics by ICP 50% of the published fee

Inorganics by ICP/MS 50% of the published fee

Inorganics by GFAA 50% of the published fee
(except mercury)

IC/HPLC 50% of
the published fee

Other discounts may apply based on the volume and types of samples.

Sampling Instructions

The Analytics technical staff, including our CIH, are available to discuss sampling strategies, sample requirements, and laboratory capabilities. Please direct inquiries through client services.

The volume of air to be collected for your samples is based on a number of factors, including:

  • Threshold Limit Value (TLV) or Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL)
  • Sensitivity of the analytical procedure
  • Capacity of the collection device
  • Concentration range to be measured

The recommendations for air volumes, sampling rates and suggested media in our directory of services are provided for your convenience and are intended only as a guide to sample collection. With few exceptions, these air volumes enable the laboratory to report one-tenth of the TLV as the detection limit.

Fees for analyses of samples submitted on sorbent tubes include separate desorption, analysis, and reporting of both front and back sections.

Clearly label every tube, badge, vial, or sample container with your sample field number or your identification number. This number should also be printed on the chain of custody/test request form.

To facilitate testing and reporting, please type or clearly print all required information on the chain of custody/test request form (COC) form. To initiate the COC, fill out and sign the appropriate sections designating time, date, and requested analysis. Submit the original with your samples and retain the copy for your records. The COC form should be submitted with each group of samples using a separate form for each sample type.

Blanks act as a control for analysis by accounting for contamination that can occur during handling, storage or shipment of samples. Therefore, they are recommended as standard industrial hygiene practice. Please handle them the same as samples, but draw no air through them. Submit one blank with each sample group of 10 or less, two blanks with 11-20 samples, etc. (i.e., 10% blanks). Since blanks are analyzed as any other sample in the laboratory, they are priced according to the analysis requested. Additional support documentation, including instrument calibration, chromatograms, etc. is available at a preparation charge of 20% of the total analytical cost.

Analytics reserves the right to refuse to process any sample, which is deemed by the laboratory to be non-compliant with the quality assurance requirements. In such cases, client services will notify the client. If sample issues cannot be resolved, the client may be billed a sample-handling fee for costs incurred up to that point.

Solid Sorbent Tube Sampling

Solid sorbent tubes include large and small charcoal tubes, porous polymer tubes such as XAD and XAD-7, large and small silica gel tubes, DNPH (dinitrophenyl hydrazine) tubes, Orbo tubes, Porapak Q, Tenax tubes, Firebrick tubes, Hydrar tubes and Florisil tubes. Sampling should be performed in the following manner:

  1. Calibrate each pump at the recommended flow rate for the analyte of interest, using a representative solid-sorbent tube in-line. Calibrate each pump with a bubble meter or equivalent flow measuring device.
  2. Break the ends of the solid sorbent tube immediately before sampling. The openings should be at least ½ of the internal diameter of the tube. Use a tube tip breaker or file.
  3. Connect the solid sorbent tube to the tube holder, making sure the smaller sorbent section (backup section) is nearest the pump. The air that is being sampled should not pass through any hose or tubing before entering the solid sorbent tube. To avoid channeling and premature breakthrough, position the tube vertically during sampling.
  4. Prepare field blanks by breaking the ends of tubes from the same lot as the tubes that are being used for sampling. Handle the blanks in the same manner as the samples, but do not draw air through the blanks.
  5. Sample at an accurately known flow rate for the length of time necessary to obtain the specified air volume. Check the pump periodically during sampling to detect any changes in flow rate. If the accurate measurement of volume cannot be determined due to inconsistent flow rates, discard the sample.
  6. Be sure to keep an accurate record of sampling data including sample location, beginning and ending times of air sampling, temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure or elevation above sea level, and name of employee.
  7. Seal the ends of the tubes with plastic caps immediately after sampling. Clearly label each sample with an appropriate identification
    number. Label each blank tube as a blank.
  8. Pack the tubes tightly for shipment to the laboratory, with adequate packing to minimize the possibility of breakage. Enclose a completed sample analytical request form (chain of custody) with each batch.
  9. Bulk samples are recommended when sampling chemical mixtures such as fuel oil, kerosene, etc. When it is necessary to ship a bulk sample along with the air samples, the bulk sample must be shipped in a separate package to avoid possible cross contamination.

Sampling Using Filters

Filters include glass fiber filters, Teflon filters, mixed cellulose ester membranes, polyvinyl chloride filters, and treated filters and pads.

Sampling with filters can be done open or closed faced. Open-faced sampling is done with three (3) piece cassettes with just the top of the cassette removed. Closed-faced sampling is performed with only the buttons removed from the cassette. Open-faced sampling is used in situations where even dispersal of the analyte over the filter is desired, such as in asbestos sampling or on certain coated filters such as for isocyanate sampling. Closed-faced sampling is performed in most cases of particulate sampling, which deposits the analyte near the center of the cassette.

Sampling should be performed in the following manner:

  1. Calibrate the sampling pump at the recommended flow rate with a representative filter in line using a bubble meter or equivalent flow measuring device.
  2. Remove the cassette buttons (closed faced sampling) or cassette top (open faced sampling). Air being sampled should not pass through any hose or tubing before entering the cassette.
  3. Attach the cassette to the sampling pump using flexible tubing or a cassette holder, making sure the filter pad end of the cassette is closest to the pump.
  4. Prepare field blanks using cassettes from the same lot by briefly removing and replacing cassette buttons and handling these blanks in the same manner as the samples, without drawing air through the blanks.
  5. Sample at a known flow rate for the length of time necessary to obtain the specified air volume, or until there is evidence of excessive filter loading. Check the pump during sampling to detect any changes in flow rate. If the accurate measurement of volume cannot be determined due to inconsistent flow rates, discard the sample.
  6. Disconnect the filter after sampling. Replace the buttons (or top) and properly label the sample and blanks. Be sure to keep an accurate record of sample data including sample location, beginning and ending times or air sampling, temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure or elevation above sea level, and name of employee or area.
  7. Ship the samples to the laboratory as soon as possible in a container designed to prevent damage in shipment. Enclose a completed chain of custody with each batch.

Sampling for Respirable Aerosols

Respirable aerosol sampling is performed using a cyclone and filter sampler. Sampling for respirable aerosols should be performed in the same manner as sampling a filter except:

  1. Calibrate each pump at the flow designated by the type of cyclone
    being used with a representative cyclone and filter in line. Note that the
    filter is mounted upside down with the cyclone in place.
  2. Inspect the interior of the cyclone. If there is visible scoring or
    damage inside, discard the cyclone since the dust separation characteristics
    may have been altered. Clean the interior of the cyclone.
  3. Attach the cyclone to the filter according to the manufacturer’s
    instructions. Connect the assembly to the sampling pump. During sampling,
    make sure the cyclone hangs vertically and that the assembly does not get
    inverted during sampling. If an accurate and consistent flow rate cannot be
    maintained, discard the sample.

Sampling for Inhalable Aerosols

We can provide pre-weighing of inhalable samplers, as well as post-weighing.
Contact the laboratory for details on this relatively new technique.

Completing the Laboratory Test Request (Chain of Custody)

Sample Custody is a set of procedures used to provide an accurate written
record that can be used to trace the possession of a sample from the time of
collection through its introduction into a data set. The Laboratory Test
Request/Chain of Custody is used to record the transfer, possession, and
custody of samples to ensure their integrity from collection through data
reporting. Until you relinquish custody, you are responsible to ensure no
one tampers with your samples. Custody is a critical part of the process
because data reported without a complete and accurate chain of custody will
not withstand legal challenge. The following items must be completed on
the chain in order to ensure sample integrity and accurate
analysis/reporting:

1. Date Shipping Samples

2. Total Number of Samples

3. Type of Media

4. Project Name or Number

5. PO or Release Number

6. Contact – Who the Report Will be Sent to

7. Telephone Number

8. Turnaround Time Required

9. Special Instructions, if needed

10. Where to fax/e-mail results

11. Sample ID or Sample Number

12. Sample Date

13. Sample volume

14. Analysis

15. Initiate COC

16. Laboratory Receipt Information (for laboratory use)

How to Use the Industrial Hygiene Section of the Directory of Services

The directory is composed of several categories of information that allows the user to access the necessary parameters for industrial hygiene air sampling.  The guide has been arranged to make it as easy as possible for the user.  For many categories, abbreviations are used to facilitate a concise format.  The following descriptions give the relevant information pertaining to each category in order of appearance in the guide.

Analyte

This category will give the name of the compound to be analyzed.   In cases where there are other names for a compound, there may be a redirection to another place in the guide.

Recommended Media

This category specifies the method recommended collection media for air sampling of the particular compound.  Two differing media separated by a comma indicates that either media may be used.  The parentheses after “IMP” (for impinger) indicates the composition of the impinger solution to be used.  The notation “2 tubes” in parentheses after the media designation indicates that the media is to be arranged in series.

Suggested Volume, L

This category specifies the method recommended air volume to be sampled in liters.  In many cases, this recommended volume can be at least doubled before breakthrough occurs.  In high relative humidity locations or with very high volatile compounds, this recommended volume should not be exceeded.

Sampling Rate, LPM

This sampling range indicates the minimum and maximum flow rate of the sampling pumps used in liters per minute.

Method

This category specifies the method used to analyze the compound listed in the test category.  The “NIOSH” designation refers to methods described in the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Manual of Analytical Methods.  The “OSHA” designation refers to methods described in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Methods Manual.  “SPM” designates a special method or an in-house method developed and validated by Analytics.  An “M” in parentheses after the method designation refers to a modification of the method that has been validated by Analytics.

Technique

This category gives abbreviations of the analytical technique and instrumentation used for the analysis of the compound listed in the test category.

LOQ (Limit of Quantitation)

This category lists the detection limit that will be reported (in micrograms) per sample.  Lower reporting limits may be available – please contact your project manager to discuss.

Lab Code (Compatibility)

This category gives the option to the user of sampling more than one compound on a specific sampling media.  In order to do so, the letter designations given in this category must be the same for each test compound to be sampled. Particular attention must be given to other parameters of the individual compounds such as sample volume and flow rate in order to ensure sample validity.  Care must be taken to make sure that no flow rate or air volume parameter for an individual compound is exceeded when sampling for two or more compounds.  The exception to the Lab Code list is NC, which means the analyte is not compatible with other compounds.

Due to the frequency of questions on substance compatibility (analytes or compounds that can be sampled on the same collection media), we have included a compatibility code table in the sampling guide.  Please see the “Lab Code” column in the list of individual air contaminants for information on individual analytes and compounds.  When two or more substances have the same laboratory code, they can be sampled together and are eligible for a discounted price (see terms and conditions section for details).